Ultrasonographic Features of the Liver, Spleen and Right Kidney in Philippine Native Horses (Equus ferus caballus)
The study was conducted to determine the ultrasound features of the liver spleen and kidney of the Philippine native horse. Thirty horses (16 male, 14 female) weighing 19.9-344.7 kg, 1 month to 10 years old were used in the study. The horses were divided into three age groups, <1 year old (3 male, 3 female), 1-3 years old (6 male, 5 female) and >3 years old (7 male, 6 female). An ultrasound machine equipped with a 3.5-MHz convex linear array scanner was used for transabdominal ultrasonography of the liver, spleen and right kidney. Echo mean values (EMV) of the different structures of the organs were determined using histogram analysis. The hepatic parenchyma was visualized as homogenously hypoechoic with distinct margins. Portal and hepatic veins were also visualized. The splenic parenchyma was hypoechoic with hyperechoic capsule. The renal capsule, cortex, medulla and pelvis were all easily distinguishable. Significant differences in EMV were observed in the spleen by age and sex (P<0.05). The kidney thickness (male and female) and width (male) was highly associated with body weight. The results obtained in the study can be used as references for diagnosis of hepatic, splenic and renal disorders in Philippine native horses.
Key words: kidney, liver, Philippine native horse, spleen, ultrasound