Philippine Native and Exotic Species of Edible Mushrooms Grown on Rice-Straw-Based Formulation Exhibit Nutraceutical Properties
To establish the nutraceutical potential of Philippine native and exotic species of edible mushrooms, the amino acid profile and functional activities of Schizophyllum commune Fr., Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr., Lentinus sajor caju Fr., Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis: Fr.) P. Karst. and Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer were elucidated. Out of 21 standard amino acids present in eukaryotes, 20 were found in P. florida and S. commune and 19 in L. sajor caju and L. tigrinus. Arginine was not detected in L. tigrinus and L. sajor caju while methionine was not found in G. lucidum. Several kinds of nonstandard amino acids, namely, phosphoserine, urea, α-aminobutyric acid, cystathionine, β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, monoethanolamine, ammonia and ornithine were detected in all species of mushrooms used. On the other hand, phosphoethanolamine and α-aminoacidipic acid were found in P. florida only while 1- methylhistidine was detected in S. commune, G. lucidum and P. florida. The antiplatelet aggregation test was performed to determine the anticoagulant activity of the extract. The different species of mushrooms demonstrated inhibition of platelet aggregation as mediated by aggregating factor, arachidonic acid Na and adenosine diphosphate. P. florida produced the highest inhibition of activating factor while S. commune exhibited the highest inhibition of arachidonic Na and adenosine diphosphate activity. Finally, all the mushroom species demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities as indicated by the inhibition of IL-8 gene expression.
Key Words: exotic mushrooms, medicinal mushrooms, mushroom nutraceutical, wild edible mushrooms
Abbreviations: AA – arachidonic acid, ADP – adenosine diphosphate, DMEM – Dulbecco’s modification Eagle’s medium, DMSO – dimethylsulfoxide, FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization, IL-8 – interleukin-8, GAPDH – glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, M-MLV – Moloney-Murine Leukemia Virus, PAF – platelet activating factor, PPP – platelet poor plasma, PRP – platelet rich plasma, RT-PCR – reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, TNF-α – tumor necrosis factor alpha
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